Sopra the third chapter of „The Prince,“ Machiavelli advises verso usurper always preciso exterminate the dynasty he has dispossessed, otherwise he will never be sure of his crown
MACHIAVELLISM is the name given preciso verso doctrine which might be summed up as follows: The supreme law of politics is success. What is bad durante the conduct of individuals can be the most imperative of duties for verso statesman if the good of the state so demands. This ded after its creator, Niccolo Machiavelli, statesman, historian and philosopher, who was born mediante Florence con 1469 and died durante the same city in 1527. The nineteenth century saw per Machiavelli one of the creators of modern thought because he freed politics from slavery sicuro theology. Until his time politics had been either empirical or per branch of theology. With Machiavelli it became a free science depending only on reason.
Durante all this there is only one inconvenient factor, namely, that one looks per vain for a complete Machiavellian system durante the works of Machiavelli. He arnesi forth his political doctrine durante two works, „Discorsi riguardo a la avanti deca di Tito Livio“ and „Il Signore“ („The Prince“). The first is a treatise on republics, the second a treatise on monarchies. I have read the „Discorsi“ many times without ever finding any trace of the doctrine called „Machiavellism.“ They contain ideas and advice on how sicuro organize a republican government. The ideas and the advice are always ingenious, though sometimes verso little too theoretical; but nowhere is consideration given sicuro the connection between morals and politics. Machiavelli maintained neither the doctrine that morals take precedence over politics nor the contrary theory; the question is simply outside the framework of his interests.
One cannot say the same of „The Prince.“ All the pretended doctrine of Machiavellism originates durante this little book. This, however, is not esatto say that it can be found there. Puro understand this paradox — that verso doctrine originates per verso book which does not contain it — we must read the book without preconceptions. Verso short treatise on monarchy, full of good advice and bad advice for sovereigns of all epochs. The good advice is more abundant, but it has the fault common onesto all good advice of being more easy onesto give than onesto follow. The bad advice is more practical, but fortunately less abundant — per fact which enables us to examine it durante detail. It falls into three parts.
What does one then find there?
This counsel blackcupid is atrocious; but does it not prove that Machiavelli was not sufficiently Machiavellian? Usurpers mediante every age would easily have understood from this quite harmless text the evil advice which the author intended esatto convey.
The seventh chapter of „The Prince“ certainly apologizes for treason and assassination con discussing C?sar Borgia. Per most shameful chapter! But one has only to turn the page sicuro find verso passionate refutation. Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse, was per successful Borgia; yet despite his success, he is flayed for his crimes con the eighth chapter, which concludes on the note that genius chiazza cannot make per great man out of a villain. Why, then, does the seventh chapter exalt what the eighth condemns?
But the great scandal of Machiavellism is the doctrine of perjury arnesi forth sopra the eighteenth chapter. We read there these celebrated words: „Therefore, verso prudent ruler ought not esatto keep faith when by so doing it would be against his interest, and when the reasons which made him bind himself in nessun caso longer exist. If men were all good, this precept would not be verso good one; but as they are bad, and would not observe their faith with you, so you are not bound onesto keep faith with them. Nor have legitimate grounds ever failed verso prince who wished onesto show colorable excuse for the non-fulfilment of his promise.“